DOI: 10.11607/ofph.2023.1.ePages 3-4, Language: English
Pages 5-6, Language: English
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3286Pages 19-26, Language: English
Aims: To determine differences between TMD subtypes in terms of clinical characteristics, dizziness, tinnitus, and ear fullness according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) and to investigate the clinical conditions associated with dizziness, tinnitus, and ear fullness.
Methods: Participants having TMDs aged 18 to 45 years were included in this study. They were classified and divided into three groups according to the DC/TMD Axis I criteria: group 1 = pain-related TMDs and headache; group 2 = intra-articular joint disorders; and group 3 = degenerative joint disease. Demographic data and dizziness, tinnitus, and ear fullness were assessed. Maximum mouth opening, opening/closing click, lateral click, fine/coarse crepitation, bruxism, and presence of pain were evaluated by physical examination.
Results: A total of 129 participants were included: 68 (52.7%) in group 1, 40 (31%) in group 2, and 21 (16.3%) in group 3. In the comparison of all three diagnostic groups, there was a significant difference only in educational level (P = .013). The presence of dizziness, tinnitus, or ear fullness was not found to be significantly different among the three groups. When all participants were divided into two groups according to the presence of dizziness, low education levels (P = .007), being married (P = .040), presence of pain (P = .002), tinnitus (P = .008), ear fullness (P = .017), and presence of thin crepitation (P = .015) were related to having dizziness symptoms. In addition, patients with ear fullness (P = .042), dizziness (P = .008), and female sex (P = .008) reported more tinnitus.
Conclusion: TMD subtype was not associated with dizziness, tinnitus, or ear fullness. Painful conditions were associated with dizziness in participants with TMDs.
Keywords: aural symptoms, dizziness, ear fullness, temporomandibular disorders, tinnitus
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3163Pages 27-34, Language: English
Aims: To present a review of the mechanisms of action, available clinical data, and safety profiles of novel migraine therapeutics to inform practice.
Methods: PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar were searched for randomized controlled trials (24 publications), review articles (15 publications), and other pertinent literature (16 publications) discussing the novel migraine therapeutics available between the years 2010 and 2021. All publications were reviewed to assess the mechanism of action, relevant clinical data, and side effect profile for each novel treatment. Therapeutic gain was also recorded in studies that included a placebo arm.
Results: A total of 55 studies were included in the final analysis. In the preventive treatment of migraine, novel medications target calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and fall into either the monoclonal anti-CGRP or gepant class. For the acute treatment of migraine, novel medications fall into either the ditan or gepant class. Several medical devices have been developed for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine.
Conclusion: Novel therapeutics are available for both the prevention and acute treatment of migraine headaches. These new medications and neuromodulatory devices appear overall to be safe and effective in the management of migraine headaches.
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3026Pages 35-48, Language: English
Aims: To assess the differential item functioning (DIF) of the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS) due to gender, age, and language (English vs Spanish).
Methods: JFLS data were collected from a consecutive sample of 2,115 adult dental patients from HealthPartners dental clinics in Minnesota. Participants with missing data were excluded, and analyses were performed using data from 1,678 participants. Whether the item response theory (IRT) model assumptions of essential unidimensionality and local independence held up for the JFLS was examined. Then, using Samejima's graded response model, the IRT log-likelihood ratio approach was used to detect DIF. The magnitude and impact of DIF based on Raju's noncompensatory DIF (NCDIF) cutoff value of 0.096, Cohen's effect sizes, and test (or scale) characteristic curves were also assessed.
Results: Essential unidimensionality was confirmed, but locally dependent items were found on the JFLS. A few items were flagged with statistically significant DIF after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The NCDIF indices associated with all DIF items were < 0.096, and they had small effect sizes of ≤ 0.2. The differences between the expected scores shown in the test characteristic curves were little to none.
Conclusion: The present results support the use of the JFLS summary score to obtain psychometrically robust score comparisons across English- and Spanish-speaking, male and female, and younger and older dental patients. Overall, the magnitude of DIF was relatively small, and the practical impact minimal.
Keywords: differential item functioning, item response theory, jaw functional limitation scale, oral health, patient-reported outcome measures
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3269Pages 49-55, Language: English
Aims: To determine sleep quality and associated factors in a group of patients with painful TMDs.
Methods: The medical records of 80 patients with arthralgia and/or myofascial pain were reviewed and compared to a healthy control group. Data about sex, age, subjective pain, physical activity, social activity, subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), pain vigilance (Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [PVAQ]), and pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) were collected. Relationships between PSQI, age, pain intensity, PVAQ, and PCS in the TMD group were also analyzed. Data from the control group were used to transform the PSQI results into T-scores, which were then used to divide the TMD group into two subgroups: normal and impaired sleep.
Results: TMD patients presented a significantly higher (P < .001) PSQI score than the control group. Also, in the TMD group, there was a low to moderate correlation between PSQI and pain intensity and a significant correlation between PVAQ and PCS. The impaired sleep group presented a significantly higher (P < .001) PSQI T-score than the normal sleep group. Univariate analysis showed that subjective pain, social activity, and the PCS total and subscale scores differed significantly between the different PSQI T-score groups. The comparison between TMD pain patients and control subjects showed a significantly higher prevalence of T-score discordance in almost all PSQI components in TMD patients with impaired sleep.
Conclusion: Subjective sleep quality in painful TMD patients could be associated with and influenced by psychosocial factors (catastrophizing and hypervigilance), social activity, and pain intensity.
Keywords: catastrophization, hypervigilance, pain, sleep, temporomandibular disorders
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3112Pages 57-75, Language: English
Aims: To systematically review the qualitative evidence related to experiences of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to explore their journeys within health care services.
Methods: A systematic search of the following databases was conducted: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL Complete, and the Cochrane database. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze and synthesize the data from qualitative studies that explored the journeys of TMD patients within health care services. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool was used to critically appraise the quality of the included studies.
Results: The search strategies yielded 4,563 articles across all databases, and 18 articles were eventually included. Six themes were derived: care-seeking attitudes; expectations and health care experience; the patient-clinician interaction; diagnosis as a stepping stone for improvement; management; and social support.
Conclusion: The journey within health care services may play a valuable role in the ability to cope with chronic TMDs. Receiving a diagnosis, being listened to, and being believed are among the most important elements making for a positive clinical experience.
Keywords: chronic pain, health care services, patient experience, qualitative evidence synthesis, temporomandibular disorders